INTRODUCTION SOLID TIMBER MANUAL 2.0
INTRODUCTION © Binderholz GmbH & Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria GesmbH 3nd edition, February 2023 All information in this document reflects the latest state of development and has been prepared for you according to the best of knowledge and good faith. As we always strive to offer the best possible solutions for you, we reserve making changes due to improvements in terms of application or production technology. Assure yourself that you have the most recent edition of this document available. Printing errors cannot be ruled out. This publication is targeted at trained specialists. The illustrations of executing activities contained in this document are not understood as processing instructions, unless expressly marked as such. Renderings and sectional views of the individual assemblies are not depicted on scale; they merely serve as illustration. Our products and systems are matched to each other. Their interaction has been confirmed by internal and external testing. All information is generally based on the exclusive use of our products. Unless described otherwise, the information does not permit any conclusions as to the combinability with third-party systems or exchangeability of individual parts by external products; to this end, no warranty can be extended or liability accepted. Please also note that our business relationships are exclusively subject to our general terms of sale, delivery and payment (GTC) in the current version. You can receive our GTC on request or find them online at www.binderholz.com and www.rigips.com. We are looking forward to a pleasant cooperation and wish you great success with all of our system solutions. Publisher Binderholz GmbH and Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria GesmbH Technical implementation Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Tim Sleik, Dipl.-Ing. Christian Kolbitsch and Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Jens Koch Graphic implementation Advertising Agency Goldfeder – Jasmin Brunner Photos binderholz, Rigips Austria, Daniel Shearing, Waugh Thistleton, b&k structures, www.christof-reich.com, Müller-Naumann HOTLINES: Binderholz Bausysteme GmbH Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria GesmbH Tel. +43 6245 70500 Tel. +43 1 616 29 80-517 www.binderholz.com www.rigips.com
INTRODUCTION CONTENTS The Solid Timber Manual 2.0 6 Improvements and expansions 7 Testing institutes 8 Approval and component database 8 Assemblies with additional details available online 9 Two partners, one vision 10 binderholz – letting ideas roam freely 10 Rigips – sustainability in the DNA 11 binderholz CLT BBS 11 Rigips dry construction systems 11 Advantages of timber construction 12 Solid timber is natural, beautiful and cosy 12 Eco-bonus wood 13 Comfort and air quality 14 Lean, light-weight structures with high degree of pre-fabrication 14 Natural 14 Sustainability 15 Pre-fabrication 15 Efficiency 15 Savings of time 15 Long lifetime and value preservation 16 Stability and light-weight 16 More net useable area by virtue of narrower wall structures 16 Noise-free, dust-free, rainproof 17 Building with a system 18 Massive safety 18 Living with wood 18 List of figures 19
INTRODUCTION 5 “It is time to rediscover what makes wood so substantial on a broad basis. Building with this healthy material opens new horizons in all respects. Involving our technology and a new aesthetic relevance are a great opportunity for the pioneering use of timber.” Architect Josef Lackner, 1979
INTRODUCTION 6 THE SOLID TIMBER MANUAL 2.0 The Solid Timber Manual is a detailed reference work for architects, planners, builders and executing workers, and investors who are interested in solid timber construction solutions. The manual was created by two partners sharing one vision: Both want to develop and provide the right systems for living space worth living and for the construction of sustainable buildings. This motto brings together binderholz and Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria, and thereby unites them to form a perfect team because every building is a symbiosis of the most diverse materials. A special combination is the connection of binderholz cross laminated timber CLT BBS and dry construction systems. The benefits of one material support those of the other. The manual explains briefly the advantages of timber construction, offers valuable information on the topic of environmental protection and explains details of building physics. In specific, this concerns fireproofing, sound and heat insulation. The most important and comprehensive chapter describes tested structural assemblies. The revised Solid Timber Manual 2.0 continues to offer all system solutions of the previous version, but it has been expanded for improved comparisons, new and comprehensive results, more information about the topic of sustainability, and more detailed breakdowns of a variety of subjects relating to solid timber construction.
INTRODUCTION 7 Living in the Park, Mondsee | AT Green centre, Holzkirchen | DE Dalston Lane, London | GB Improvements and expansions Additional assemblies for sound insulation of residential partition walls with double-layer installation level that comprise only one carrying CLT BBS wall layer have been tested. Compared to the double-layer assemblies (two separate CLT BBS elements per assembly), they have a significant economic advantage, such as gains in space by virtue of lower wall thickness, material savings and much more. In the Solid Timber Manual 2.0, not only the components are evaluated in terms of sound insulation but the secondary sound paths leading through flanking components and component connections have been considered as well. For this purpose, the results of the calculation models and tests from the research project “Vibro-acoustics in the planning process for timber construction” have been processed. The newly developed materials of Saint-Gobain have been tested elaborately. Exterior walls with different heat insulating compound systems of Weber and the latest insulating materials of Isover have been considered. By means of the examined optimisations, panelling thicknesses could be reduced, for example, in systems with one layer of 12.5 mm thick panelling of Rigips fire protection boards in wall, ceiling and roof structures. © b&k structures © www.christof-reich.com © Müller-Naumann
INTRODUCTION 8 Testing institutes Testing was performed at accredited testing institutes. They have many years of experience from research and monitoring activities at home and abroad. Exclusively by the institutions listed below assigned the building physical and ecological rating of the structures. Approval and component database FIRE RESISTANCE TEST The IBS and the MFPA Leipzig have subjected the CLT BBS for load-bearing and non-load bearing components, also in combination with Rigips systems, to a number of fire tests and they have classified its functionality and safety. ECOLOGY The Österreichische Institut für Bauen und Ökologie [Austrian Institute for Building and Ecology] (IBO) as well as the Institut für Baubiologie Rosenheim [Rosenheim Institute for Building Biology] (IBR) test and evaluate building products regularly and certify them according to their safety in use as a recommended construction material. HEAT INSULATION The characteristic values of the exterior components with high-quality insulation have been calculated by the Österreichische Institut für Bauen und Ökologie (IBO). APPROVED EUROPE-WIDE binderholz CLT BBS and the Saint-Gobain building products are building materials with Europe-wide approval. The CLT BBS received the European technical approval ETA06 / 0009 as early as in the year 2006. Besides the EN classification, Rigips Riduro timber boards and Rigidur H fibre reinforced plasterboards additionally have a European technical approval for particular characteristics. CONSTRUCTION BOOK All assemblies in this manual have been evaluated and they can be found in the “baubook” construction product declaration book. The “baubook” is an online platform of ecological building products for guidance and information of manufacturers, dealers, builders, planners, experts and people interested. It not only serves to support the realisation of sustainable buildings but also as a reference work on topics such as subsidised housing development and climate control criteria. SOUND INSULATION All sound insulation tests have been conducted by the ift Rosenheim and the timber research institute Holzforschung Austria. Their far-reaching experiences in timber construction make a significant contribution to the development of efficient solutions.
INTRODUCTION 9 Assemblies with additional details available online You can find our Solid Timber Manual Online Tool at www.massivholzhandbuch.com/en. All shown assemblies as well as supplementing details and component ratings are available in this database. Your benefit: You can download all drawing files and documents directly and use them in your CAD program.
INTRODUCTION 10 TWO PARTNERS, ONE VISION Developing systems for living space worth living and sustainable and functional buildings – this is the vision that connects binderholz and Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria. binderholz – letting ideas roam freely In the timber industry, the name of Binder stands for tradition and integrity, combined with high-tech and innovation. From humble beginnings as a small sawmill more than 70 years ago, the family-run binderholz has grown into a fully integrated group of companies that utilises state-of-the-art technology and manufacturing methods. Besides its original headquarters in Fügen, Austria, binderholz operates 60 other sites. Some 6,300 employees at Austrian, German, British, Latvian, Finish and US sites share a passion for wood. Our solid wood products range from lumber, profiled timber, single and multi-ply laminated solid wood panels and glulam to binderholz CLT BBS. These are complemented by DIY products such as garden wood, construction wood and multi-purpose boards as well as wooden pallets and customised packaging solutions. Residual wood accruing during production is turned into densified biofuels, green electricity, pressboard pallets and pressed pallet blocks. Handling the wonderful raw material wood and of the environment responsibly guarantees high-quality solid timber products and biofuels. binderholz sees to the right raw material. All products are produced sustainably and efficiently according to the zero-waste principle and the resource wood is used to 100%. The energy-efficient processing that is sparing on resources assures an ecological, cost-aware and individual end product. By means of solutions based on energy and environmental awareness, wood can be used with a good conscience. binderholz owes its reputation to providing elaborate customer care and its proximity to the customers, a product range and a price policy that are accordingly aligned to the market, as well as to binderholz’s quality management. As a competent partner, binderholz is at its customers’ side with many years of experience, as well as tried and proven construction solutions using solid timber. Experts of the highly capable technical department offer comprehensive consulting and well-founded service. The qualified engineers, construction technicians and draftsmen provide competent support in all matters relating to statics and design, building physics and fire protection. In the development of building concepts, drafts of load-bearing structures and detail solutions, too, the experienced binderholz expert team is effectively at your side. Each building is a symbiosis of the most diverse materials. A special combination is the connection of binderholz CLT BBS and dry construction systems of Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria. The benefits of one material support those of the other. Sustainability, the careful handling of resources and the energy-efficient operation of the buildings play a particularly important role in these considerations. To realise this aim, the companies bundle their know-how, development potential and consulting competency.
INTRODUCTION 11 Rigips – sustainability in the DNA Rigips drywall is one of the leading brands for modern interior finishing solutions in the German-speaking market and it is part of the SaintGobain Group, one of the world’s 100 largest industrial corporations. Rigips offers diverse system solutions including all components needed for the purposes of the modern, dry and design-oriented interior finishing. The sparing use of natural resources is particularly important to the company. Therefore, the strict requirements that the company has imposed on itself go far beyond the legally mandated values. Rigips Austria was founded in the year 1971 and has shaped dry construction in Austria over recent decades. By now, the company has three sites in Austria and multiple sales representations additionally in South East European countries. While capacity is being expanded continuously, the pollutant emissions have minimised to near zero and energy consumption has been reduced by more than 30%. Rigips Germany has nine production sites and two logistics centres in Germany. Here, plasterboards, fibre reinforced plasterboard, dry screed and accessories are developed, produced and marketed under the Rigips trademark. Sustainability is of central importance for Rigips. The innovative Rigips systems are therefore the ideal addition to timber construction. They round out the natural advantages of the building material wood with the ecological products of Rigips. binderholz CLT BBS The cross laminated timber CLT BBS (see Figure 1) has a multi-layered and completely solid timber design. By pasting lengthwise and traverse layers, the “working” of the wood, meaning swelling or shrinking, is reduced to a negligible measure. This way, it can safely fulfil the requirements for a modern construction material. The material is monolithic, meaning in a certain sense made of “one piece of wood” with 0.6% ecologically harmless glue. The solid finished part can bear heavy loads, is fire resistant, can be installed quickly and dryly, and has sound and heat insulating effects. It regulates the room humidity and thereby creates a comfortable and well-balanced room climate – in the summer as well as in the winter. It simplifies planning and construction. CLT BBS guarantees defined building physical and mechanical characteristics; this is why the planned building physics can be implemented and tested easily. Many planners quote this as being one of the greatest benefits of the CLT BBS construction design. No complexity in design, no films, no complicated details. Planning, construction and control – everything made simple. Figure 1 – binderholz CLT BBS Rigips dry construction systems The dry interior finishing with systems made of plasterboard or fibre reinforced plasterboards (see Figure 2) has become well established for multiple reasons in architecture as well as in the private and public sphere: dry construction systems are standardised, easy to install and nonetheless permit the realisation of rooms with sophisticated design. Based on their composition, plasterboard products are ideally suited to master challenges of fire protection, acoustics and sound insulation, and they can be used permanently in wet rooms. Rigips boards are recommended in terms building biology and they contribute to a comfortable room climate. Figure 2 – Dry construction systems of Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria
INTRODUCTION 12 ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER CONSTRUCTION International studies attest to a great future of timber construction. While the ecological component has been decisive until recently, strong economic arguments are now increasingly coming into play. Solid timber is natural, beautiful and cosy Construction projects are created with solid timber products and building solutions of binderholz that meet all normative requirements for building physics and fire protection. The solid timber structures are stable in value, sturdy and meet the highest demands for quality, efficiency and ecological sustainability. To assure this, all binderholz construction solutions are developed in close orientation on practice, and they are tested and certified. In addition, they permit a quick, dry, clean and low-noise construction design. Thanks to the comprehensive research, development and certification work of binderholz, solid timber structures can be implemented nowadays in technical terms within the limits of the building code so that they reliably fulfil all generally applicable construction standards. A large number of successfully realised reference objects and the constantly increasing demand prove that solid timber construction is equally popular as economically competitive. Technical and economic aspects meanwhile are only one side of it. There are further good reasons in addition that support solid timber construction. ©Waugh Thistleton
INTRODUCTION 13 For the question of suitable construction solutions and building materials, criteria such as ecology, sustainability, lifecycle costs, recycling and a sparing treatment of resources play an ever more prominent role. Solid timber construction is clearly superior to all conventional construction methods in these aspects. Besides, the binderholz construction solutions also offer great quality at a comparably low expense of construction time and cost. Furthermore, binderholz manufactures according to the zero-waste principle. In this process, the raw material wood is utilised to 100% and largely with no effects on climate. This begins with the sparing wood harvest in exclusively sustainably managed forests and culminates in a wide range of solid timber construction projects. All by-products created in the manufacturing are completely utilised and converted into green energy in special biomass heat power plants or for the production of biofuels. Moreover, binderholz construction solutions stand out for their high degree of reusability and they can be completely ecologically recycled at the end of their lifecycle. This way, binderholz ensures a sparing and smart handling of the raw material wood. Projects, such as Dalston Lane in Great Britain with nine storeys and lift shafts made of binderholz CLT BBS impressively prove the capacity of the solid timber construction design. Of all construction materials, wood has the best capacity: this is the relation of weight to load-bearing capacity. It is not only suitable for realising buildings of solid timber construction on particularly difficult parcels of land, for example, on mountain ridges in Zillertal of Tyrol, but also for constructing roof structures on pre-war houses in Vienna’s city centre. Wood is the most frequently chosen building material when it comes to low-energy and passive houses – and notably for good reasons, as experts know because wood accomplishes meeting the building physical requirements to the full extent. Many people decide in favour of wood because of its room climate characteristics: the pleasant surface temperature and the ability to balance temperature and humidity peaks. Wood has an equally positive effect as plasterboard on the well-being of people and thus on their health. This, too, is not only an economic but also a macro-economic factor. Eco-bonus wood The natural resource wood also offers numerous advantages under environmental protection aspects in comparison to conventional building materials Well-being Compensation Sustainability Growth Natural carbon store Climate protection Energy store ECOLOGY Recycling Environment Room climate Energy efficiency
INTRODUCTION 14 Comfort and air quality Solid timber stands for well-being and cosiness. This alone is ensured by the diverse possibilities for architectural design. For example, the visible surfaces in the interior of a building can be combined of different wood types such as spruce, stone pine, silver fir or CLT BBS antique and be further customised by means of paint varnishes and sanded or brushed surfaces. Together with the excellent properties of the wood mass as heat and moisture store, the warm wooden surfaces guarantee a balanced living climate and a high measure of comfort. Construction products of Saint-Gobain have been provided with the seals of quality of the Blauer Engel or the Indoor Air certificates, and essentially contribute to a good room climate. Rigips Activ'Air plasterboards cannot only absorb pollutants from the air but also even convert them into inert substances. These positive characteristics have already been used in many buildings in the domestic and in foreign countries. Lean, light-weight structures with high degree of pre-fabrication binderholz construction solutions permit a maximum of pre-fabrication. This substantially reduces construction periods and assures high quality. Furthermore, solid timber structures convince for their economically attractive relation of gross to net residential floor space compared to conventional construction designs. In view of construction costs, this fact increasingly gains importance especially in the urban areas. Smart combinations of solid timber and conventional building materials such as concrete, steel and glass often lead to efficient hybrid solutions. These conjoin the advantages of traditional materials with the benefits of the solid timber construction design. A big advantage, for example, is the comparably low weight of solid timber. This strength literally comes to bear when raising buildings by additional floors. Here, solid timber makes a compelling case by its structural possibilities and the fact that its comparably low weight does not significantly increase the load on the building. Natural As natural wood is used without building chemistry in solid timber construction, a building construction of solid timber has even positive effects on health. Cheap building materials and furniture can release problematic substances possibly causing allergies and other illnesses. To deliberately counteract the causation of such diseases, it should be relied upon materials that are harmless in terms of building biology. Solid timber is a completely unpolluted building material and moreover even strengthens the immune system and vitalises the nervous system. Wooden rooms have a calming effect and ensure a pleasant room climate. Plasterboards produced by Rigips Austria consist of natural plaster and they are tested regularly by the IBO for their non-objectionable properties.
INTRODUCTION 15 Sustainability Sustainability rests on three pillars: an economic, an ecological and a social pillar. All three of them must be in harmony before it can be spoken of sustainability. Building with wood fulfils all of them. Building with wood is economical. Building with wood is ecological because wood is a sustainable raw material. And building with wood is socially valuable because wooden structures are optimised energetically and therefore affordable over the long term. Wood is a renewable raw material with a positive effect on the environmental climate. During their growth, trees convert CO2 and water into hydrogen. When wood is used as building material, it serves for many years as a safe CO2 store. Each cubic metre of wood that is used as substitute for other building materials, reduces the CO2 emissions in the atmosphere by 1.1 tonnes on average. Gypsum is 100% infinitely recyclable. Through lean components that are sparing on resources, Rigips plasterboard contributes to sustainable construction throughout the entire lifecycle. Pre-fabrication Wooden building elements are nearly completely pre-fabricated (see Figure 3). This results in advantages of quality and scheduling. Even humidity and temperature is prevalent in the production halls. The assemblers work under steady framework conditions and the structures are protected from the effects of weather. The work in subsequent trades, such as electrical and sanitary installations, is prepared to the furthest extent so that the construction progress at the construction site proceeds in a coordinated and swift manner. Figure 3 – Production supervision from the control room at the binderholz CLT BBS site in Unternberg Efficiency The low deadweight of timber and dry construction structures reduces the expense for the foundation and baseplates. The high degree of pre-fabrication simplifies the implementation at the construction site and secures a standardised and verifiable level of quality. The construction site equipment can be reduced and the logistics expense is lower. The dry construction design shortens the construction periods significantly and thereby enables that the buildings can be used at an earlier point in time, which in turn drastically reduces the financing periods. Savings of time The savings of time through the use of binderholz CLT BBS in combination with Rigips dry construction systems can be substantial in the construction of large-volume buildings. The high degree of pre-fabrication drastically shortens the construction phase. Load-bearing wall elements simply need to be aligned and linked to each other. Drying periods for brickwork or screed are eliminated when using Rigips dry construction systems. Based on their comparably low weight, these pre-fabricated timber elements can have very large dimensions. As the installation is made in the level between the plasterboard system and the timber element, the subsequent cutting and plastering work is omitted.
INTRODUCTION 16 Long lifetime and value preservation Long tradition in crafts and industry as well as targeted research and development have generated the experience to use the right product in the suitable manner for the various applications. Austrian institutions and businesses are internationally leading in the production and further development of wood and timber materials, and in state-ofthe-art production and processing techniques. In modern timber construction, all businesses that manufacture self-contained wall and ceiling elements are subject to internal and external supervision. Moreover, many businesses are voluntary members of workmanship and quality associations. The quality of the used timber materials and products is ensured by means of defined standards and permits. If wood is used professionally (constructive wood protection), it has a long lifetime and its value is preserved. Stability and light-weight Wood stands out for its very high static quality. In reference to its deadweight, wood carries 14 times as much as steel; its pressure resistance equals that of reinforced concrete. Multi-story wooden buildings and wide-area load-bearing structures are optimal areas of use. The reason for the high stability is the microstructure of wood, which ensures high load-resistance with simultaneously low deadweight. Wood is therefore a light-weight building material with excellent technical characteristics. In spite of its low weight, wood offers high tensile and pressure resistance and it is resilient to weathering when it is used correctly. More net useable area by virtue of narrower wall structures Wood has excellent heat insulating characteristics, which is why substantially leaner walls than in conventional construction can be incorporated in solid timber buildings. For example, the portion of walls in timber construction adds up to merely 20% of the constructed overall floor space, while this portion is greater in conventional buildings (see Figures 4 and 5). This means that up to 10% more residential space can be had in a building made of wood with the same exterior dimensions as a conventional building. In the case of a single-family home this means a gain of floor space of almost an entire room. For larger projects, this outstanding construction feature of wood also has positive effects on the construction density. Significantly less land is needed for high-quality residential buildings. Thus, also the cost share for land is reduced for all involved. Building with wood creates more living space. Figure 4 – Floor plan of a flat in the conventional construction style Residential floor space of 100 m² Figure 5 – Floor plan of a flat in the timber construction design Residential floor space of 110 m²
INTRODUCTION 17 Noise-free, dust-free, rainproof Noise, waste and dust are three keywords that probably everyone associates with construction projects. Not so when building with CLT BBS. Based on the high degree of pre-fabrication and the installation method of solid timber, CLT BBS in particular, noise, waste and dust can be reduced drastically. The installation of CLT BBS does not require a noisy machine park, as individual elements are merely bolted together on site. A raised level of pre-fabrication of the CLT BBS elements reduces the processing steps on site and lowers the exposure to dust, waste and also noise. Since timber does not require any periods for drying and as the construction site is rainproof when the roof is set on top, also multi-storey floor additions can be realised quickly within a few days. © Daniel Shearing
INTRODUCTION 18 BUILDING WITH A SYSTEM Massive safety Timber construction systems using CLT BBS and Rigips dry construction systems fulfil all building physical requirements and standards for load-bearing walls, ceilings and roofs. They are tested according to European standards and meet requirements applicable Europe-wide. The products and production sites are remote monitored at regular intervals and the systems are optimised further. Therefore, the binderholz construction solutions of solid timber deliver safe and lasting building products for a wide range of applications. Living with wood The many years of experience of binderholz in the handling of wood and the knowledge about the texture, structure and composition of the wood form the basis for the modern and future-oriented handling of the raw material wood. All processing steps internal of binderholz, covering everything from static planning and dimensioning of the structural timber products up to the production and final beam, take place at more than 60 sites by now in Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Latvia, Finland and the USA (see Figure 6). AUSTRIA headquarter 5 locations USA 3 locations LATVIA 1 location GREAT BRITAIN over 40 locations GERMANY 5 locations FINLAND 3 locations Figure 6 – binderholz sites
INTRODUCTION 19 List of figures Figure 1 – binderholz CLT BBS Page 11 Figure 2 – Dry construction systems of Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria Page 11 Figure 3 – Production monitoring from the control room at the binderholz CLT BBS site in Unternberg Page 15 Figure 4 – Floorplan of an apartment in conventional construction residential area 100 m² Page 16 Figure 5 – Floorplan of an apartment in timber construction residential area 110 m² Page 16 Figure 6 – binderholz sites Page 18
2nd edition, April 2023 Binderholz Bausysteme GmbH A-5400 Hallein / Salzburg Solvay-Halvic-Strasse 46 Tel. +43 6245 70500 www.binderholz.com Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria GesmbH A-1230 Vienna Gleichentheilgasse 6 Tel. +43 1 616 29 80-517 www.rigips.com
SUSTAINABILITY SOLID TIMBER MANUAL 2.0
SUSTAINABILITY © Binderholz GmbH & Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria GesmbH 2nd edition, March 2022 All information in this document reflects the latest state of development and has been prepared for you according to the best of knowledge and good faith. As we always strive to offer the best possible solutions for you, we reserve making changes due to improvements in terms of application or production technology. Assure yourself that you have the most recent edition of this document available. Printing errors cannot be ruled out. This publication is targeted at trained specialists. The illustrations of executing activities contained in this document are not understood as processing instructions, unless expressly marked as such. Renderings and sectional views of the individual assemblies are not depicted on scale; they merely serve as illustration. Our products and systems are matched to each other. Their interaction has been confirmed by internal and external testing. All information is generally based on the exclusive use of our products. Unless described otherwise, the information does not permit any conclusions as to the combinability with third-party systems or exchangeability of individual parts by external products; to this end, no warranty can be extended or liability accepted. Please also note that our business relationships are exclusively subject to our general terms of sale, delivery and payment (GTC) in the current version. You can receive our GTC on request or find them online atwww.binderholz.com and www.rigips.com. We are looking forward to a pleasant cooperation and wish you great success with all of our system solutions. Publisher Binderholz GmbH and Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria GesmbH Technical implementation Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Tim Sleik, Dipl.-Ing. Christian Kolbitsch and Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Jens Koch Graphic implementation Advertising Agency Goldfeder − Jasmin Brunner Photos binderholz, Rigips Austria, b&k structures, www.christof-reich.com, Daniel Shearing HOTLINES: Binderholz Bausysteme GmbH Saint-Gobain Rigips Austria GesmbH Tel. +43 6245 70500 Tel. +43 1 616 29 80-517 www.binderholz.com www.rigips.com
SUSTAINABILITY CONTENTS Future challenges 4 Wood – THE most sustainable raw and building material 5 Climate protection and resource protection 7 The forest as a carbon drain 8 How much wood is needed to manufacture 1 m³ CLT BBS? 9 Regional character based on short distances 10 Efficiency factor of forestry and wood 11 Great value, big benefit 12 The zero-waste principle of binderholz 13 Timber construction in facts and figures 14 Ecobalance and cascade use of wood 17 Objectives 19 Gypsum – the raw material 20 Transparency – environmental product declaration 21 Multi-comfort 22 Innovation 22 Employee commitment in the course of the world depletion day 23 Key indicators 23 List of figures 24 Sources 24
SUSTAINABILITY 4 SUSTAINABILITY Future challenges With 17 defined goals, the so-called Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UNECE lists its milestones for a sustainable further development. These are to contribute to mastering the global ecological, economic and social challenges (see Figure 1). To support reaching these goals, a campaign of measures has been launched. It is a special initiative of the UN Secretary General that is managed by the United Nations development programme. It is supported by the United Nations and the Member States in the publication and involvement of the public in the implementation of the SDGs. The SDGs apply to all states, companies and civil societies and took force on 1 January 2016 with a term of 15 years. Figure 1 – 17 SDGs of the UNECE Paris Agreement In contrast to the Kyoto Protocol of the year 1997, the Paris Agreement obligates all states without exception for the first time since 2015 to develop a national climate protection contribution (“nationally determined contribution”, NDC). Each state must resolve measures for implementation and also fulfil these. The primary goal is the so-called 2-degree target: By 2015, the global emissions are to be reduced by 40% to 70%, so that the critical temperature increase of 2 degrees Celsius is not exceeded. Furthermore, new comprehensive rules on the protection of forests have been adopted. New forms for the international cooperation on carbon markets are being established and the states are called upon to respond better to climate change and arrange global financial flows in such a way that climate protection is in the foreground. Saint-Gobain contributes actively in the implementation of the Agreement and is available actively with its competence also at advanced conferences and to interested groups. Moreover, the Paris Agreement can already accelerate reaching the goals by targeted specific measures such as the consistent use of wood in the construction sector.
SUSTAINABILITY 5 Wood – THE most sustainable raw and building material Following the principle of consuming only as much in the presence so that more will be available in the future, sustainability is and stays the top priority in European forestry. Accordingly, the three basic functions of the forest (utility, protection, and recreation function) is to be and remain available also for next generations. About 300 years ago, the term sustainability was coined by Hans Carl von Carlowitz in his “Silvicultura oeconomica”. This economic management concept that was originally developed exclusively for forestry is put into practice today more than ever and in politics and the economy it by now stands for the model of a future-oriented use of resources worldwide. This is also reflected in the official data of the EU. Accordingly, the forested area in the EU has increased by 2% in 15 years, which means an absolute growth of rounded 4 million hectares of forested area. The same applies to the forestry and use of timber from the forests at a national level. In Austria, currently nearly half of the country’s entire territory is forest (see Figure 2). Since 1961, an area of 300,000 hectares has been added and by now, 0.5 hectares of forest per resident is reached. Of this, 82% is in private and 18% in public ownership. As continuously more timber regrows than is harvested, the Austrian forest, differently than is the case in the clearing of tropical forests, can perpetually spread more. Moreover, Austrian forests are the home to 3.4 billion trees and 65 different types of trees with a total reservoir of 1.1 billion metres of existing forest. Of the 30.4 million solid cubic metres that regrow each year in the Austrian forests, 25.9 million solid cubic metres are extracted to fully satisfy the principle of sustainable forestry. Figure 2 – Forest area of the EU Member States, Zuschnitt 51 proholz Austria In contrast to the tropical rainforest, Austria’s forest may not serve as a so-called “rainmaker” but it ensures that the country stays fresh and moist. The relative humidity in the forest is up to 10% higher than in the surrounding land. It thereby regulates the climatic conditions, binds greenhouse gases, protects against avalanches and flood water, promotes biodiversity and additionally serves as a local recreation area. In addition, it makes a significant contribution to the drinking water in the country maintaining its high quality. Germany is among the European countries with the largest forested areas. Overall, there are about 90 billion trees in Germany’s forests. One-third of the country’s entire territory is covered by forests – this equals 11.4 billion hectares. In spite of its low growth of 0.4%, the forest keeps growing further. The Federal States that have the most forest in terms of hectares are Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate with 42%. Source: The forest in Germany The German forest is characterised by its great biodiversity with 90 species of trees, 1,215 species of plants and 6,700 animal species. Without overextending the use of the forest, up to 120 million m³ of timber can be harvested in the domestic territory per year. As the annual timber consumption of Germany is around 135 million m³, 11% of the consumed timber must be imported. The annual timber increase according to the third Federal Forest Inventory is 121.6 m³ of timber. This equals forty times the Giza Pyramid in comparison. Thus, a conFinnland 75% Finland 77% Austria 48% Italy 37% Germany 31% Hungary 22% Schweden 68% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Österreich 47% Slowakei 41% Tschechien 33% Italien 32% Deutschland 31% Frankreich 30% Ungarn 19% EU 19% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% EU 42%
SUSTAINABILITY 6 verted 3.8 m³ of wood regrows per second in the German forest. The overall inventory of timer available in the German forest is 3.7 billion m³. Thus, Germany has the highest timber inventory in Europe. Source: Timber Balance for Germany In Finland, 77% of the country’s total territory is covered by forest, which means 4.2 hectares wooden area per resident. Nearly half of the Finish forests are pinewoods, the largest remaining portion is split between spruce, downy birch and weeping birch. The majority of Finland’s forests are mixed forests, thus they are home to more than one species. Overall 30 different domestic species can be found in Finland. The Finish forestry as well is managed according to the principle of sustainability because the annual increase of forests by 30% exceeds the annual timber harvest quantities. Consequently, the Finish forest grows continuously and this is true for all tree species and forest areas of Finland. The annual growth has exceeded the 100-million cubic metre threshold since a few years ago. In the year 2014, for example, there was a growth of 104 million m³. The total volume of the Finish forest in 2014 was at 2,360 billion m³ and since the beginning of the 21st century, Finland’s timber inventories have grown by 60%. Source: Finland’s forests Guaranteed sustainability along the supply chain – Chain of Custody (CoC) To guarantee the benefits of the sustainable and resource-conscious European forestry for the end user along the entire value added chain, consistent monitoring along the supply and production chain is needed – from the tree to the customer! At the level of the EU Member States, country-specific forestry laws ensure compliance with a sustainable and adjusted forestry. In the international economic area, this is ensured through a legal framework of the European Union to facilitate consistent control and monitoring of the sustainable supply chain. The FLEGT action plan and the EUTR With the FLEGT actions plan (Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade), the EU has adopted a broadly based catalogue of measures to effectively fight the global problem of uncontrolled and illegal wood harvest. An important point in the FLEGT actions plan meanwhile is the European Timber Regulation (EUTR). At its core, it demands from all European market actors that they are accountable in the worldwide procurement of wood and wood products, to thereby be able to build up a sustainable supply chain in the long term. The regulation, which took force on 3 March 2013, foremost demands central proof that illegal sources of timber are excluded by companies importing to the European Union. For this purpose, each importer has to undergo a company-internal due diligence process, which is based on three central pillars: • Procurement of information • Risk assessment • Risk reduction Source: FLEGT approval system Independent certification of the supply chain Besides the strict public control bodies, the companies of the timber industry can seek additional testing from independent certifying institutions. Various service providers such as the PEFC or FSC are available for this. PEFC is the largest institution for the assurance and marketing of sustainable forestry by means of an independent certification system. It ensures a sustainable, careful and responsible forestry. This way, our forests will stay preserved also for future generations – as a living basis, workplace and recreational area. The aim is to continuously improve our forestry, preserve the forest and assure its positive effects on the environment. Thanks to an accreditation procedure according to international standards, the independence of the certifying institutes is guaranteed to a particularly high measure. The emphases here are on facilitating the fair participation of all forest owners, regardless of the size of their business, and consideration for the diversity of forest ecosystems, cultural heritage and ownership structures. PEFC is the first system that has integrated social criteria not only in the forest certification but also in the product chain certification (Chain of Custody).
SUSTAINABILITY 7 Photosynthesis Solar energy CO2 O2 O2 Decomposition Combustion C Climate protection and resource protection Carbon cycles in nature The carbon cycles in nearly all ecosystems are decisively characterised by photosynthesis, as it supplies all creatures with energetic elements and sources of energy. In the course of photosynthesis, plants take up carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air during their growth, as well as water and nutrients from the soil, and build their growth and textural structure from this. For trees, this basic structure is wood. During the photosynthesis process, the low-energy oxygen molecule is decomposed in the green leaves of the plants by means of light. Oxygen (O) that is vital for most living beings and created as a decomposition product this way is released again to the environment. Carbon (C) in contrast serves for the organic structure of the tree and remains bound in the form of biomass for its entire lifecycle. This way, the plants continuously extract the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere (see Figure 3). Biomass is understood to mean wood, leaves, roots and humus. As soon as the biomass dies off, carbon dioxide is released again through decomposition and the natural cycle is closed. Figure 3 – Carbon cycles in nature Certification by binderholz The traceability of the origin of the wood and the exclusion of exploitative harvesting represent the basis for certification and guarantee this way the promotion of a socially and environmentally compatible economy. The diversity of plants and animals thereby remains preserved and the social interests of humans are taken into consideration. As processing companies are also certified, the certification status is maintained up to the end customer. Forest owners cannot only have their forests certified directly by a certifying institute but the buyers of the logs, in cooperation with the forest owners, can additionally rate wood originating from non-certified forests by means of a specially developed due diligence system, which has been accredited in advance by a certifying institute, and they can exclude it from the further process in the case of uncertainties. All products of binderholz are 100% PEFC-certified or made of wood that originates from PEFC-controlled sources. The implementation of the strict PEFC criteria and a permanent internal self-monitoring of the flows of logs and lumber in combination with an annual external audit on site by an independent certifying institute serve to fulfil the goals of sustainable timber use and thus meeting the PEFC requirements. Based on the sustainable approach of the European forestry that is sparing on resources and which is monitored by a strictly controlled regulatory framework, construction with timber is sensible in all respects. Wood is available everywhere in our latitudes to sufficient extent and it is a natural resource that regrows continuously more than it is harvested. It is therefore no surprise that the wood industry has been firmly rooted in Europe ever since.
SUSTAINABILITY 8 The forest as a carbon drain In times of rising CO2 emissions due to increasing anthropogenic emissions, groomed and stable forests through regulated forestry, like they can be found in all of Northern and Central Europe, are one of the decisive factors in the reduction of the CO2 load in the atmosphere. The graphic below shows how important a regulated forest cultivation by means of forestry management is (see Figure 4). While the carbon balance in an unmanaged forest remains balanced due to the dying off and rotting of trees, the balancing in a cultivated forest takes a different course: when wood is harvested, the carbon remains stored in the harvested wood – meaning the rotting phase is simply skipped. If the cultivation of the forests was discontinued, there would be neither wood products storing additional carbon nor biomass that might replace fossil energy carriers. Thus, global warming would progress even faster. Therefore, non-cultivated forests are less beneficial for the atmosphere than cultivated forests. This is so because the wood cannot be used and the natural rotting causes that the CO2, which has been absorbed by the tree during its growth phase, is released to the atmosphere again. CO2-sequestration - long-term deposit and storing of carbon Based on the ability of trees to store it for the long term, even after the harvest, not only the forest but foremost also buildings, furniture or even toys made of wood contribute as carbon stores to the reduction of the CO2 content in the atmosphere. As a rule of thumb, 1 m³ of wood stores nearly one tonne of CO2 equivalents from the atmosphere. Extrapolated, this means that the Austrian forest stores approx. 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalents. This is almost 35-times as much as greenhouse gases emitted by Austria per year. Trees bind carbon dioxide and store it as biogenic carbon over a long period. Every used trunk creates space for new trees and increases the carbon store in the wood. Buildings with wood therefore make sense in all aspects, especially since wood is available to sufficient extent everywhere in our latitudes. At the same time, it is a natural and sustainable raw material that can be subject to a comprehensive natural cascade as a cyclical material. Figure 4 – Effects of the carbon drain between the forestry and the jungle, Zuschnitt 65, proHolz Austria Wälder speichern große Mengen an Kohlenstoff und sind daher wichtig für den globalen Kohlenstoffkreislauf. Seit 1960 hat sich der CO 2-Anteil in der Atmosphäre von 218 ppm auf aktuell ca. 385 ppm um 0,039 Prozent erhöht. Ohne CO 2 in der Atmosphäre hätten wir eine durchschnittliche Welttemperatur von – 16 ° C und nicht wie derzeit ca. + 15 ° C. In Österreich hat die Jahresmittel - temperatur seit 1960 um 1,5 ° C zugenommen, während sich die jährlichen Niederschläge im Mittel nicht verändert haben. Wald puffert große Mengen an CO 2 und ohne Wald hätten wir eine um 30 Prozent höhere CO 2-Konzentration. Die globale Waldfläche ist damit gemeinsam mit den Ozeanen der wichtigste „Klimapuffer“ und Walderhaltung bzw. eine Erweiterung der Waldflächen ist Teil des Klimaschutzes. Was bewirkt Waldwirtschaft? Waldökosysteme binden Kohlenstoff. Mit der Kompostierung von abgestorbener Biomasse setzen Wälder Kohlenstoff frei. Großflä - chige, vom Menschen unbeeinflusste Waldökosysteme (Urwälder) binden in et a die gleiche Menge Kohl nstoff, die sie durch Ab - bauprozesse freisetzen. Ein 300 Hektar großer Urwald mit einer idealen Altersklassenverteilung ist CO 2-neutral und hat somit auch keine Senkenleistung. Waldwirtsc aft hingegen nutzt Holz am Ende der Optimalphase und führt es ide lerweise im Sinn einer s genannten kaska - dischen Verwendung der gesellschaftlichen Nutzung zu. Am Ende des Prozesses verrottet dann Holz wieder bzw. wird für die Ener - gieerzeugung verwendet. Damit werden fossile Energieträger (Er öl, Erdgas) subsituiert u d durch die erneuerbare Ressource Holz aus nachhaltiger Waldwirtschaft ersetzt. Im Gegensatz zu einem Urwald hat ein 300Hektar großer Wirtschaftswald mit idealer Altersklassenverteilung aufgrund von Substitutionseffek - ten (Ersatz von fossilem C) einen positiven Effekt. Im Gegensatz zum Urwald wird C bzw. CO 2 nicht durch Zersetzungsprozesse freigesetzt, sondern geerntet und erst wieder im Zuge der energe - tischen Nutzung an die Atmosphäre abgegeben. Das Kyoto-Protokoll Die international wichtigste Vereinbarung zum Klimaschutz ist das Kyoto-Protokoll. Ein wichtiges Ziel des Kyoto-Protokolls ist die Erhaltung der globalen Waldfläche, die außer in Europa auf - grund der Umwandlung in landwirtschaftliche Flächen und Sied ungsraum für die wachsende Bevölkerung abnimmt. Österreich hat sich bei der Klimakonferenz im japanischen Kyoto zu einer Reduktion des CO 2-Ausstoßes bis 2012 um 13 Prozent, bezogen auf das Niveau von 1990 (79 Mio. t CO 2), verpflichtet. Seit Februar 2005 gilt diese Vereinbarung. Im Jahr 2012 wäre für Österreich ein Ausstoß von 68,87 Mio. t CO 2 erlaubt gewesen, tatsächlich betrug dieser 80,2 Mio. t. Hauptverursacher waren der Verkehr (ca. 30 Prozent) und die Industrie ( 29 Prozent). Auch wenn in Österreich die Waldfläche jährlich um 7.000Hektar zunimmt und damit ein wichtiger Beitrag zum Klimaschutz geleistet wird, muss Österreich den CO 2-Ausstoß senken, um die Klimaziele zu erreichen. Dazu sind auch die Förderung erneuer - barer Energien sowie der Verwendung von Holz, das in Gebäude , Möbeln etc. als „Zwischenlager“ fü Kohlenstoff dient, not wendig. Diese „Zwischenlagerung“ bzw. „kaskadische“ Verwendung von Holzprodukten verringert den CO 2-Gehalt in der Atmosphäre. Es wird eine Intensivierung der Waldwirtschaft er - wartet, wobei auf die Nachhaltigkeit zu achten ist. Reisig und Ä te müssen i Wald verbl iben, damit es zu k inen Degradierunge der Standorte kommt. Hubert Hasenauer ist Professor für Waldbau und Leiter des Instituts für Waldbau an der Universi - tät für Bodenkultu in Wien. Seine Forschungsinteress n sind W ldbewirtschaftungskonzepte und Kohlenstoffkreisläufe sowie die Weiterentwicklung u d Anwendung von Ökosystemmodellen in der Klimafolgenforschung. I – Optimal phase: Here, the strongest volume growth takes place and the forest stores large quantities of carbon. The forest is a carbon drain. II – Decomposition phase: The forest has reached its physiological age limit; trees die and discharge carbon to the atmosphere. The forest is a carbon source. III – Rejuvenation phase: The forest is at the end of the decomposition phase with a lot of rejuvenation. The forest is carbon-neutral because decomposition and growth processes are about equal. Hubert Hasenauer The cultivated forest Carbon is bound, turnover time of 150 years, carbon release outside of the forest. The jungle Carbon is constant, a full lifecycle of 300 years can be seen, no cultivation. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 years I II III 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Carbon (t⁄ ha⁄ a) CO2 Carbon storage in the forest Growth and extraction Carbon storage in the installed wood product Continuous growth through long-term use C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C